This toolkit sets out the process that local authorities, and their partners, use to evaluate the extent of people sleeping rough, by carrying out either a snapshot count or evidence-based estimate.
Rough Sleeping Counts and Estimates – all you need to know.
Here we explain how this is done, and what methodologies are used to collate the national rough sleeping statistics.
Homeless Link is funded by the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG) to support local authorities in England to undertake either a count or an intelligence-led estimate of the number of people rough sleeping. Below are the answers to the most common questions people ask in relation to this process.
How do you define ‘rough sleeping’?
Since 2010, the figures used for national statistics have used the following definition of rough sleeping:
“People sleeping, about to bed down (sitting on/in or standing next to their bedding) or actually bedded down in the open air (such as, on the streets, in tents, doorways, parks, bus shelters or encampments). People in buildings or other places not designed for habitation (such as stairwells, barns, sheds, car parks, cars, derelict boats, stations, or ‘bashes’).
The definition does not include people in hostels or shelters, sofa surfers, people in campsites or other sites used for recreational purposes or organised protests, squatters or Travellers sites.
Do local authorities count every person who is homeless?
The purpose of the Counts and Estimates Project is to produce a snapshot figure of how many people are sleeping rough across England. The methodologies available must be consistent across all regions in England. This allows the MHCLG to track trends in rough sleeping numbers. The data does not include people who do not fall within the definition e.g. those in hostels, temporary accommodation or sofa surfing.
What is the difference between a ‘count’ and an ‘estimate’?
Accurately recording the number of people sleeping rough across England on any one night is a huge challenge. The snapshot methodologies of a count or an estimate are used to allow local authorities to apply an approach that most accurately reflects rough sleeping in their area. The following methodologies used have allowed the snapshot figure to remain the only consistent time series of data to measure the changes in rough sleeping across the country.
A local authority may choose to do a physical count if there is a high number of people sleeping rough in the area and sleep sites are both visible and easily accessible, such as urban areas. Likewise, if there has been a significant change in the number of rough sleepers and there is a lack of evidence about who individuals are, local authorities may undertake a count. This is especially useful if there is a disagreement between partner agencies in the area about who is sleeping rough and where.
Estimates are not guesses, but are intelligence-led and involve bringing together local agencies to agree on a figure of how many people are sleeping rough on the chosen night. Areas may choose to do an estimate if the local context of rough sleeping makes physically counting impractical (e.g. in large rural areas or areas with rough sleepers in areas that are inaccessible or unsafe to go into).
Some areas in England have much better local intelligence, which if combined can provide a more accurate picture. It is also possible to undertake a snapshot count on the chosen night, and then use this intelligence with information from local partner agencies. This is called an “estimate informed by a snapshot count”, but is still officially recorded as an estimate.
Is the information collected about rough sleepers shared?
Counts and estimates provide an opportunity to evaluate the extent of rough sleeping, including which obstacles are preventing people from leaving the streets. This is useful for Local Authorities who do not have regular street outreach and support services. At a local level, partner agencies agree on information sharing protocols in order to share individual information which informs support plans, as well as avoiding double counting.
Local Authorities share aggregated data in statistical returns to the MHCLG. They provide the total number of people sleeping rough, as well as numbers of British people, EU nationals, non-EU nationals, women, men, under-18s and young people. No personalised or geographical data is shared with the government.
What is the role of Homeless Link?
Homeless Link’s role is to both provide the necessary training and guidance for local authorities delivering counts or estimates and to officially verify each figure. We provide the training and support for independent verifiers and collate all of the aforementioned demographic information.
Where can I find out more information about the methodologies used and previous figures?
If you are interested in comparing previous figures, you can access all the information – plus more about other homelessness data sets – in the Facts section of the Homeless Link website. You can view every Local Authority and track the trends and trajectories of rough sleeping figures.
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Innovation and good practice project manager
Patrick is an Innovation and Good Practice Project Manager, working on a range of innovation projects across the homelessness sector. Previously coordinated the Strategic Alliance on Migrant Destitution (SAMD) project on behalf of Homeless Link.
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